According to Sociologist Manuel Vallee,
the French Federation of Psychiatry
developed an alternative classification system as a resistance to the influence of the DSM-3
. This alternative was the CFTMEA
(Classification Française des Troubles Mentaux de L’Enfant et de L’Adolescent
), first released in 1983, and updated in 1988 and 2000. The focus of CFTMEA
is on identifying and addressing the underlying psychosocial causes of children’s symptoms, not on finding the best pharmacological bandaids with which to mask symptoms.